2013 Publications


  1. Y. Wang, C. Nelson, A. Melville, B. Winchester, S. L. Z. K. Liu, D. G. Schlom, X. Q. Pan, L.-Q. Chen. " BiFeO3 Domain Wall Energies and Structures: A Combined Experimental and Density Functional Theory plus U Study," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267601 (2013).
  2. R. C. Haislmaier, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, A. Melville, D. G. Schlom, V. Gopalan, "Large nonlinear optical coefficients in pseudo-tetragonal BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031906 (2013).
  3. R.L. Johnson-Wilke, D. Marincel, R. Engel-Herbert, V. Gopalan, S. Zhu, D. G. Schlom, M.P. Warusawithana, A. Hatt, J. Sayre, K.T. Delaney, N. A. Spaldin, C. M. Schleputz, J.-W. Kim, P. Ryan, and S. Trolier-McKinstry "Quantification of octahedral rotations in strained LaAlO3 films via synchrotron x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B, 88, 174101 (2013).
  4. R.L. Johnson-Wilke, D. S. Tinberg, C. yeager, W. G. Qu, D. D. Fong, T. T. Fister, S. K. Streiffer, Y. S. Han, I. M. Reaney, S. Trolier-McKinstry, "Coherently strained epitaxial Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys., 114, 164104 (2013).
  5. L. Hong, Y. L. Li, P. P. Wu, L. Q. Chen, "Minimum tetragonality in PbTiO3/BaTiO3 ferroelectric superlattices," J. Appl. Phys. , 114, 144103 (2013).
  6. A. S. Gupta, O.Arteaga, R. Haislmaier, B. Kahr, V. Gopalan, -Quartz:("Reinvestigation of Electric Field Induced Optical Activity in Application of a Polarimeter with Four Photoelastic Modulators," Chirality (2013).
  7. F. Xue, J. J. Wang, G. Sheng, E. Huang, Y. Cao, H. H. Huang, P. Monroe, R. Mahjoub, Y. L. Li, V.Nagarajan, L. Q. Chen, "Phase field simulations of ferroelectrics domain structures in PbZrxTi1-xO3 bilayers," Acta Materialia, 61, 2909-2918 (2013).
  8. C-H.Lee, N. D. Orloff, T. Birol, Y. Zhu, V. Goian, R. Haislmaier, E. Vlahos, J. A. Mundy, Y. Nie, M. D. Biegalski, J. Zhang, M. Bernhagen, N. A. Benedek, Y. Kim, J. D. Brock, R. Uecker, X. Xi, V. Gopalan, D. Nuzhnyy, S. Kamba, D. A. Muller, I. Takeuchi, J. C. Booth, C. J. Fennie & D. G. Schlom, "Exploiting Dimensionality and Defect Mitigation to Create Tunable Microwave Dielectrics," Nature, 502, 532 (2013). doi:10.1038/nature12582 (published on-line on October 16, 2013) (2013).
  9. P.J. Ryan, J.-W. Kim, T. Birol, P. Thompson, J.-H. Lee, X. Ke, P.S. Normile, E. Karapetrova, P. Schiffer, S.D. Brown, C. J. Fennie, D. G. Schlom, "Reversible control of magnetic interactions by electric field in a single-phase material," Nature Communications, 4, 1334, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2329, January (2013).
  10. S. Zhang, I. Gilbert, C. Nisoli, G. W. Chern, M. J. Erickson, L. O'Brien, C. Leighton, P. E. Lammert, V. H. Crespi, P. Schiffer, "Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice," Nature, 500, 553-337 (2013).
  11. P. Gao, J. Britson, J. R. Jokisaari, C. T. Nelson, S-H. Baek, Y. Wang, C-B. Eom, L.-Q. Chen, X. Pan, "Atomic Scale Mechanisms of Ferroelastic Domain Wall Mediated Ferroelectric Switching", Nat. Commun., DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3791.
  12. L.Z. Li, P. Gao, C. T. Nelson, J. R. Jokisaari, Y. Zhang, S-J. Kim, A. Melville, C. Adamo, D. G. Schlom, X. Pan "Atomic Scale Structure Changes Induced by Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectric Materials". Nano Letters, 13, 5218-5223 (2013).
  13. X. Ke, T. Birol, R. Misra, J. H. Lee, B. J. Kirby, D. G. Schlom, C. J. Fennie, J. W. Freeland, "Structural control of magnetic anisotropy in a strain-driven multiferroic EuTiO3 thin film," Phys. Rev. B, 88, 094434 (2013).
  14. A.N. Morozovska, Y.J. Gu, V.V. Khist, M.D. Glinchuk, L.Q. Chen, V. Gopalan, and E.A. Eliseev, "Low-symmetry monoclinic ferroelectric phase stabilized by oxygen octahedra rotations in strained EuxSr1-xTiO3 thin films," Physical Review B, 87(13), 232904 (2013).
  15. C. H. Lee, N. J. Podraza, Y. Zhu, R. F. Berger, S. P. Shen, M. Sestak, R. W. Collins, L. F. Kourkoutis, J. A. Mundy, H. Q. Wang, Q. Y. Mao, X. X. Xi, L. J. Brillson, J. B. Neaton, D. A. Muller, D. G. Schlom, "Effect of reduced dimensionality on the optical bandgap of SrTiO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122901 (2013).
  16. C. H. Lee, V. Skoromets, M. D. Biegalski, S. M. Lei, R. Haislmaier, M. Berhagen, R. Uecker, X. X. Xi, V. Gopalan, X. Marti, S. Kamba, P. Kuzel, D. G. Schlom, "Effect of stoichiometry on the dielectric properties and soft mode behavior of strained epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films on DyScO3 substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 082905 (2013).
  17. R. K. Vasudevan, M. B. Okatan, C. Duan, Y. Ehara, H. Funakubo, A. Kumar, S. Jesse, L. Q. Chen, S. V. Kalinin, V. Nagarajan, "Nanoscale origins of nonlinear behavior in ferroic thin films," Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 81-90 (2013).
  18. E. Freeman, G. Stone, N. Shukla, H. Paik, J. A. Moyer, Z. Cai, H. Wen, R. Engel-Herbert, D. G. Schlom, V. Gopalan, S. Datta, "Nanoscale structural evolution of electrically driven insulator to metal transition in Vanadium oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 263109 (2013).
  19. E. A. Eliseev, S. V. Kalinin, Y. Gu, M. D. Glinchuk, V. Khist, A. Borisevich, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, A. N. Morozovska, "Universal emergence of spatially modulated structures induced by flexoantiferrodistortive coupling in multiferroics," Phys. Rev. B. 88, 224105 (2013).
  20. T.A. Lummen, Yijia Gu, Jianjun Wang, Shiming Lei, Amit Kumar, Andrew T. Barnes, Eftihia Barnes, Sava Denev, Alex Belianinov, Martin Holt, Anna N. Morozovska, Sergei V. Kalinin, Long-Qing Chen and Venkatraman Gopalan, "Thermotropic phase boundaries in classic ferroelectrics," accepted, Nat. Commun. (2013).
  21. P. J. Ryan, J.-W. Kim, T. Birol, P. Thompson, J.-H. Lee, X. Ke, P. S. Normile, E. Karapetrova, P. Schiffer, S. D. Brown, C. J. Fennie, and D. G. Schlom, "Reversible Control of Magnetic Interactions by Electric Field in a Single-phase Material," Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2329 (2013).


  1. Daniel Ahmed, Mengqian Lu, Amir Nourhani, Paul E. Lammert, Zak Stratton, Hari S. Muddanna, Vincent H. Crespi and Tony Jun Huang, "Selectively manipulable acoustic-powered microswimmers", submitted to Nature Physics, (2013).
  2. Amir Nourhani, Paul E. Lammert, Vincent Crespi, Ali Borhan, "A General Analysis of Electrokinetic Self-Propulsion for Electrocatalytic Nanomotors", Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., (2013).
  3. Amir Nourhani, Paul E. Lammert, Ali Borhan and Vincent H. Crespi, "Kinematic Matrix Theory for Swimmers and Nanomotors", submitted to Physics of Fluids, (2013).
  4. Amir Nourhani, Young-Moo Byun, Paul E. Lammert, Ali Borhan and Vincent H. Crespi, "Nanomotor mechanisms and motive force distributions from nanorotor trajectories", Physical Review E, 88, 062317 (2013).
  5. Amir Nourhani, Paul E. Lammert, A. Borhan, V. H. Crespi, "Chiral diffusion of rotary nanomotors", Physical Review E, 87, 050301 (2013).
  6. W. Wang, S. Li, L. Mair, S. Ahmed, T. J. Huang, and T. E. Mallouk, "Acoustic propulsion of nanorod motors inside living cells," Angew. Chem., in press.
  7. S. Sengupta, D. Patra, I. O. Rivera, A. Agrawal, K. K. Dey, S. Shklyaev, T. E. Mallouk, and A. Sen, "Self-powered enzyme micropumps," accepted in Nature Chem.
  8. S. Ahmed, W. Wang, L. O. Mair, R. D. Fraleigh, S. Li, L. A. Castro, M. Hoyos, T. J. Huang, and T. E. Mallouk, "Steering acoustically propelled nanowire motors towards cells in a biologically compatible environment using magnetic fields," Langmuir, 29, 16113-16118 (2013).
  9. W. Wang, W. Duan, A. Sen, and T. E. Mallouk, "Catalytically-powered dynamic assembly of rod-shaped nanomotors and passive tracer particles," PNAS, 110, 17744-17749 (2013).
  10. W. Wang, T.-Y. Chiang, D. Velegol, and T. E. Mallouk, "Understanding the efficiency of autonomous nano- and microscale motors," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 10557-65(2013).
  11. Y. Chen, X. Ding, S.-C. S. Lin, S. Yang, P.-H. Huang, N. Nama, Y. Zhao, A. A. Nawaz, F. Guo, W. Wang, T. E. Mallouk, and T. J. Huang, "Tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW)" ACS Nano, 7, 3306-14 (2013).
  12. S. Sengupta, K. K. Dey, H. S. Muddana, T. Tabouillot, M. E. Ibele, P. J. Butler, and A. Sen, "Enzyme Molecules as Nanomotors," Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135, 1406 (2013).
  13. D. Ahmed, C. Y. Chan, S. S. Lin, H. S. Muddana, N. Nama, and T. J. Huang, "Tunable, Pulsatile Chemical Gradient Generation via Acoustically Driven Oscillating Bubbles," Lab on a Chip, 13, 328-331 (2013).
  14. W. Duan, R. Liu, and A. Sen, "Transition between Collective Behaviors of Micromotors in Response to Different Stimuli," Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135, 1280 (2013).
  15. S. Yang, M. I. Lapsley, B. Cao, C. Zhao, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, J. Scott, W. Li, L. Wang, Y. Lei, and T. J. Huang, "Large-Scale Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Surface Patterns Using Template-Defined Electrochemical Deposition," Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 720-730 (2013).
  16. Q. Hao, S. Morton, B. Wang, Y. Zhao, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, "Tuning Surface-Enhanced Rman Scattering from Graphene Substrates using the Electric Field Effect and Chemical Doping," Applied Physics Letters, 102, 011102 (2013).
  17. Wei Wang, Wentao Duan, Suzanne Ahmed, Thomas E. Mallouk, and Ayusman Sen, "Small Power: Autonomous Nano- and Micromotors Propelled by Self-generated Gradients," Nano Today, 2013, 8, 531-554. (DOI:10.1016/j.nantod.2013.08.009)
  18. Samudra Sengupta, Wentao Duan, Hua Zhang, Ryan Pavlick, and Ayusman Sen, "Intelligent, Self-Powered, Drug Delivery Systems,"Debabrata Patra, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 1273-1283.
  19. Ryan A. Pavlick, Krishna K. Dey, Andrew Sirjoosingh, Alan Benesi, and Ayusman Sen "A Catalytically-Driven Organometallic Molecular Motor," Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 1301-1304.
  20. Matthew S. Baker, Vinita Yadav, Ayusman Sen, and Scott T. Phillips, "A Self-Powered Polymeric Material that Responds Autonomously and Continuously to Fleeting Stimuli," Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 10295-10299.
  21. Debabrata Patra, Hua Zhang, Samudra Sengupta, and Ayusman Sen, Dual Stimuli-Responsive, Rechargeable Micropumps via "Host-Guest" Interactions," ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 7674-7679.
  22. Hua Zhang, Wentao Duan, Lei Liu, and Ayusman Sen "Depolymerization-Powered Autonomous Motors Using Biocompatible Fuel," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 15734-15737.
  23. Vinita Yadav, Jonathan D. Freedman, Mark Grinstaff, and Ayusman Sen, "Bone-Crack Detection, Targeting, and Repair Using Ion Gradients," Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 10997-11001.
  24. Anthony M. DiLauro, Hua Zhang, Matthew S. Baker, Flory Wong, Ayusman Sen, and Scott T. Phillips, "Accessibility of Responsive End-Caps in Films Composed of Stimuli-Responsive, Depolymerizable Poly(phthalaldehydes)," Macromolecules, 2013, 46, 7257-7265.
  25. Chenglong Zhao, Yongmin liu, Yanhui Zhao, Nicolas Fang and Tony Jun Huang, "A reconfigurable plasmofluidic lens", Nature Communications, 4, 2305, (2013).
  26. Yan Jun Liu, Mengqian Lu, Xiaoyun Ding, Eunice S.P. Leong, Sz-Chin Steven Lin, Junjie Shi, Jing Hua Teng, Lin Way, Timothy J. Bunning, Tony Jun Huang, "Holographically Formed, Acoustically Switchable Grating Based on Polymer-Dispered Liquid Crystals", JALA, 18, 291-295, (2013).


  1. K. L. Andre, D. M. Zhang, H. R. Gutierrez, E. C. Dickey, N. S. Samarth, and S. E. Mohney, "Characterization of Zn1-xMnxSe nanowires and nanoribbons with cation sublattice ordering," Journal of Crystal Growth, 375 (95-99) 2013.
  2. Yi Sun, Jian Wang, Weiwei Zhao, Mingliang Tian, Meenakshi Singh and Moses H. W. Chan "Voltage-current properties of superconducting amorphous tungsten nanostrips" Scientific Reports, 3, 2307 (2013)
  3. Meenakshi Singh and Moses H. W. Chan, "Observation of individual macroscopic quantum tunneling events in superconducting nanowires" Physical Review B 88, 06451 (2013)
  4. Weiwei Zhao, Qingyan Wang, Minhao Liu, Wenhao Zhang, Yilin Wang, Mu Chen, Yang Guo, Ke He, Xi Chen, Yayu Wang, Jian Wang, Xincheng Xie, Qian Niu, Lili Wang, Xucun Ma, Jainendra K. Jain, M. H. W. Chan, and Qi-Kun Xue, "Evidence for Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in atomically flat two-dimensional Pb superconducting films" Solid State Communications 165, 59-63 (2013)
  5. A. Kandala, A. Richardella, D. M. Zhang, T. Flanagan and N. Samarth, "Surface Sensitive Two-dimensional Magneto-fingerprint in Mesoscopic Topological Insulator Channels," Nano Letters 13, 2471(2013).
  6. Ying Xing, Yi Sun, Meenakshi Singh, Yan-Fei Zhao, M. H. W. Chan and Jian Wang,"Electronic transport properties of topological insulator films and low dimensional superconductors" Front. Phys. 8(5), 491-508 (2013)
  7. Y. W. Yin, J. D. Burton, Y-M. Kim, A. Y. Borisevich, S. J. Pennycook, S. M. Yang, T. W. Noh, A. Gruverman, X. G. Li, E. Y. Tsymbal & Qi Li, "Enhanced tunnelling electroresistance effect due to a ferroelectrically induced phase transition at a magnetic complex oxide interface" Nature Materials 12, 397-402 (2013)
  8. Mingliang Tian, Wei Ning, Zhe Qu, Haifeng Du, JianWang and Yu Heng Zhang " Dual evidence of surface Dirac states inthin cylindrical topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowires" Scientific Reports, 3, 1212 (2013)
  9. Zhaoquan Zeng, Timothy A. Morgan,Dongsheng Fan, Chen Li, Yusuke Hirono, Xian Hu, Yanfei Zhao, Joon Sue Lee, Jian Wang, Zhiming M. Wang, Shuiqing Yu, Michael E. Hawkridge,Mourad Benamara, and Gregory J. Salamo "Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators on GaAs (111) substrates: a potential route to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction" AIP Advances 3, 072112 (2013).
  10. H-J. von Bardeben, J.L. Cantin, D.M. Zhang, A. Richardella, D.W. Rench, N. Samarth and J.A. Borchevs, "Ferromagnetism in Bi2Se3 Mn epitaxial layers", Phys. Rev. B88,075149 (2013).


  1. X. Wang, D. H. Werner, J. P. Turpin, and P. L. Werner "Efficient Hybrid Algorithms for Characterizing 3-D Doubly Periodic Structures, Finite Periodic Microstrip Patch Arrays, and Aperiodic Tilings," Chapter in Computational Electromagnetics: Recent Advances and Engineering Applications, edited by Raj Mittra, Springer, pp. 445-486, (2013).
  2. D. H. Werner, J. A. Bossard, Z. Bayraktar, Z. H. Zhang, M. D. Gregory, and P. L. Werner, "Nature Inspired Optimization Techniques for Metamaterial Design," Chapter in Numerical Methods for Metamaterial Design, edited by Kenneth Diest, Springer, pp. 97-146, (2013).
  3. D.-H. Kwon, Q. Wu, and D. H. Werner, "Transformation Electromagnetics for Cloaking, Lensing, and Radiation Applications," Chapter in Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications, edited by D. H. Werner and D.-H. Kwon, Springer, pp. 33-81, (2014).
  4. Z. H. Jiang, L. Lin, J. A. Bossard, and D. H. Werner, "Bifunctional Plasmonic Metamaterials Enabled by Subwavelength Nano-notches for Broadband, Polarization-Independent Enhanced Optical Transmission and Passive Beam-steering," Optics Express, 21(25), 31492-31505, (2013).
  5. S. Yun, Z. H. Jiang, D. Ma, Z. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, "Experimental Verification of Substrate-Induced Bianisotropy in Optical Metamaterials," Applied Physics Letters, 103(23), 233109/1-5 (2013).
  6. Z. H. Jiang and D. H. Werner, "Exploiting Metasurface Anisotropy for Achieving Near-perfect Low-profile Cloaks Beyond The Quasi-static Limit," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 46(50), 505306/1-12, (2013).
  7. A. H. Panaretos and D. H. Werner, "Tunable Wavelength Dependent Nanoswitches Enabled by Simple Plasmonic Core-Shell Particles," Optics Express 21(22), 26052-26068, (2013).
  8. A. H. Panaretos and D. H. Werner, "Engineering the Optical Response of Nanodipole Antennas Using Equivalent Circuit Representations of Core-Shell Particle Loads," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 30(11), 2840-2848, (2013).
  9. X. Wang, D. H. Werner, and Jeremiah P. Turpin, "Investigation of Scattering Properties of Large-Scale Aperiodic Tilings Using a Combination of the Characteristic Basis Function and Adaptive Integral Methods," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 61(6), 3149-3160, (2013).
  10. Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, L. Lin, J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, "Tailoring Dispersion for Broadband Low-loss Optical Metamaterials Using Deep-subwavelength Inclusions," Scientific Reports, 3, 1571/1-9, (2013).
  11. Z. H. Jiang and D. H. Werner, "Compensating Substrate-Induced Bianisotropy in Optical Metamaterials Using Ultrathin Superstrate Coatings," Optics Express, 21(5), 5594-5605, (2013).
  12. X. Wang, Q. Wu, J. P. Turpin, and D. H. Werner, "BOR-FDTD for Rigorous Analysis of Three-dimensional Axisymmetric Transformation Optics Lenses," Optics Letters, 38(1), 67-69 (2013).
  13. R. He, T. D. Day, M. Krishnamurthi, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, "Silicon p-i-n Junction Fibers," Advanced Materials, 25(10), 1460 (2013).
  14. S. Yun, F. Namin, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, C. Bungay, C. Rivero-Belaine, and L. Zhang, "Demonstration of a Nearly Ideal Wavelength-Selective Optical Mirror Using a Metamaterial-Enabled Dielectric Coating," Applied Physics Letters, 102(17), 171114/1-5, (2013).
  15. Q. Wu, Z. H. Jiang, O. Quevedo-Teruel, J. P. Turpin, W. Tang, Y. Hao, and D. H. Werner, "Transformation Optics Inspired Multibeam Lens Antennas for Broadband Directive Radiation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 61(12), 5910-5922, (2013).
  16. A. G. Read, A. J. Biacchi, R. E. Schaak, "Au-Ge and Ag-Ge Heterodimers with Tunable Domain Sizes: A Supersaturation-Precipitation Route to Colloidal Hybrid Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials, 25(21), 4304-4311 (2013).
  17. X. Wang, Q. Wu, J. P. Turpin, and D. H. Werner, "Rigorous Analysis of Axisymmetric Transformation Optics Lenses Embedded in Layered Media Illuminated by Obliquely Incident Plane Waves," Radio Science, 48(3), 232-247, (2013).
  18. F. A. Namin, X. Wang, and D. H. Werner, "Reflection and Transmission Coefficients for Finite-Sized Aperiodic Aggregates of Spheres," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 30(4), 1008-1016, (2013).
  19. J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, S. Chaudhuri, T. C. Fitzgibbons, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, "Conformal Coating by High Pressure Chemical Deposition for Patterned Microwires of II-VI Semiconductors," Advanced Functional Materials, 23(13), 1647-1654 (2013).
  20. J. R. Sparks, Pier J.A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J.V. Badding, "Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials, Annual Review of Materials Research, 43, 527-557 (2013).
  21. L. Shen, N. Healy, P. Mehtra, T.D. Day, J.R. Sparks, J.V. Badding and A.C. Peacock, " Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core fibers towards the mid-infrared regime", Optics Express, 21, 13075-13083 (2013).
  22. N. Vukovic, N. Healy, F.H. Suhailin, P. Mehtra, T.D. Day, J.V. Badding and A.C. Peacock, "Ultrafast optical control using the Kerr nonlinearity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon microcylindrical resonators, Scientific Reports, 3, 2885, (2013).

Seed Projects

  1. T. J. Larrabee, T. E. Mallouk, and D. L. Allara, "An Atomic Layer Deposition Reactor with Dose Quantification for Precursor Adsorption and Reactivity Studies," Review of Scientific Instruments, 84(1), 014102 (2013).
  2. J. Campos-Delgado, D. L. Baptista, M. Fuentes-Cabrera, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, H. Terrones, Y. A. Kim, H. Muramatsu, T. Hayashi, M. Endo, M. Terrones, and C. A. Achete, "Iron Particle Nanodrilling of Few Layer Graphene at Low Electron Beam Accelerating Voltages," Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 30, 76-82 (2013).